Agriculture.-Of the 4600 acres which this parish contains, there may be about 500 acres tinder wood, partly planted and partly natural; about 300 acres of moor, moss, and rock ; the remainder arable, but of very different qualities. Two-thirds of it lie on a substratum of sandstone; the remainder on whin rock. it rises at its western extremity to the height of 600 feet above the level of the Forth. Its eastern parts terminate in the carse of Stirling, a few feet above the level of that river. The average rental may be about L. 2 per Scots acre of what is reckoned good land. Some fields, however, on the banks of the Carron, let as high as L. 3 and sometimes L. 4 per acre. With a very few exceptions, the land is cultivated in as improved a method as it will admit of. The nature of the soil will not bear often cropping. A considerable proportion is always laid down in grass, for rearing and feeding cattle. Considerable quantities of turnips are raised, and still more of potatoes, which are generally of a very good quality. Formerly, flax was sown on every farm, but since foreign flax was so plentifully imported, that crop has given way to wheat, which grows here well. From the proximity of the Campsie hills, Denny-moor, and other high moorland districts, a great quantity of rain falls, particularly during the continuance of the westerly winds, which prevail here during eight months in the year; yet, from the unevenness of the surface, assisted by draining, there is scarcely any stagnant water in this district, a circumstance, no doubt, favourable to the health and comfort of the inhabitants. From this draining and other agricultural improvements, the river Carron, except in time of floods, discharges a much less quantity of water than it did fifty years ago. To command a supply of that necessary article to the numerous mills on this stream, a large reservoir has been lately formed on one of its feeders called Earl's Burn, in the parish of St Ninians. Every article of farm produce finds here a ready market and a good price. Rents are all in money. Cattle are generally of a moderate size. Heavy ones are found not to be profitable on light soils, either for dairy or feeding. Labourers' wages run about 10s. per week; men-servants' L. 16, and women L. 9 per annum. The number of separate farms is forty, and of families depending on agriculture about sixty-eight, being rather more than one-fifth part of the whole population.
Manufactures- There are two extensive and respectable calico-printing establishments in this parish, viz. Herbertshire and Denovan. The former was begun in 1783, the latter in 1800. The number employed at Herbertshire print-works, the property of Charles Carnie, Esq. in September 1836, was nearly as follows :-Block-printers, journeymen, 16; apprentices, males, 44 females, 40. Tierers, one to each printer, and a few called paper-layers, 110; print-cutters, dyers, colour-mixers, labourers, &c from twelve years of age and upwards, 100; girls employed in sewing and fringing, 80. Total number employed, 390. A great quantity of goods are printed here by machinery. Some of these machines put in four different colours almost at the same instant.
Near these works, the proprietor has a genteel country residence, but its beauties are considerably obscured by the lowness of its situation, and by the proximity of the neighbouring village of Herbertshire.
The number employed at Denovan print-works, the property of James Graham Adam, Esq. from an official statement, is as under:
-Block-printers, journeymen, 100; apprentices, males, 85; females,
15. Print-cutters and pattern-drawers, 30; colour-mixers, dyers,
bleachers, and general labourers, 80; sewers and fringers of shawls,
vary, according to the season of the year, from 50 to 150,- average,
say, 90; miscellaneous, employed during the course of the year,
20; tierers, composed of boys and girls, one to each printer,-the
ages of this class of workers vary from six to twelve years, 200.
Total number employed, 620. Journeymen printers ern from L. 1
to L. 1, l0s. per week; male apprentices earn from l0s. to 15s.;
and females from 5s. to l0s. per week, according to their respective
skill and expertness; print-cutters and drawers earn from 15s.
to L. 1, 15s; labourers from 7s. to 12s.; and tierers from 2s.
to 2s. 6d. per week.
Of the workmen belonging to these two printing establishments, about one-third are domiciled in this parish, the other two-thirds live in the opposite side of the river Carron, in the village of Denny; consequently, the general manners of the inhabitants in both places are very similar.
The scenery around Denovan Works fascinates the eye of every traveller. On their southern boundary, the red-roaming Carron, with its thousand associations, just escaped from its native mountains, moors, and glens, rolls its now peaceful waves. A little to the eastward stands the parish church with its beautiful Gothic tower, rising majestically above the surrounding oaks. A few yards higher in the landscape, stands Mr Adam's House, delicately screened from the northern blasts, by the rising eminences in the back-ground of this beautiful panorama.
Mills.-There are in this parish three grain-mills, two flax-mills, one mill for carding and spinning wool, and one for grinding charred wood for Carron Iron-Works.
Quarries are four in number-all producing superior freestone.
One of them abounds with excellent flag or pavement stone, which
has an extensive sale. Considerable quantities of these flags
are carried in carts and boats to a great distance. These quarries
employ about 40 individuals.