The number of acres, standard imperial measure, cultivated or occasionally in tillage, may be computed at . . 11,000,
Number of acres never cultivated, and constantly waste or in pasture, 1,900
undivided common, none
under plantations, 1,800

The trees planted or indigenous are, oak, Scotch fir, ash, larch, beech, hazel, and birch. The wood of Callendar is believed to be the remains of the Caledonian forest, with which a great part of the country was covered at the Roman invasion.

Rate of Labour - Farm labourers have, in summer and winter, 8s. and 9s. per week, with victuals. Masons and carpenters, 2s. and 2s. 6d. per day besides victuals. Ploughmen have L. 16 per annum, with bed and board.

Breeds of Cattle.- Of these few are reared, supplies being obtained from the North and West Highlands.

There is nothing peculiar to the husbandry of the upper parts of this parish. Of the method of labour practised in the Carse district, we here insert an account, which has been furnished by ah intelligent and scientific farmer, Mr David Hardie, Westkerse, and which may be viewed as applicable to the carses of this county in general.

" Owing, probably, to the small size of the farms in the district, which, till within the last fifty years, were much smaller than they now are, improved modes of management were later in being introduced, than into many parts of the country. Since then, how-ever, great changes have been effected; improved breeds of cattle have been introduced; agricultural implements have been perfected; farm-offices improved; and the fields have been levelled and laid off in straight ridges.

Greater facilities have also been afforded by the harbour of Grangemouth for procuring sea-borne manures, which have been largely used.

"The greatest alteration, however, has undoubtedly been effected by draining,-the first agricultural improvement of modern times, and one admirably adapted to the state of the soil. For the latter operation, drain-tiles, of which there is a manufactory in the district belonging to the Earl of Zetland, are universally used, and nearly all the farms have been either wholly or partially drained with them. The rotation of crops has also become better understood, and the particular shifts which are best suited to call forth the energies of the soil, have been ascertained. Indeed, most of the tenantry are bound, in their covenants of lease, to follow a particular system of cropping; but as it is one which experience has proved to be best adapted for the land, it is very rarely departed from, even in cases where the tenant is at liberty to do so. It is as follows: First year, fallow; 2d, wheat; 3d, beans; 4th, barley; 5th clover and ryegrass; and 6th, and last of the rotation, oats. According to this system of alternate cropping, it will be seen, that, in order to secure a proportion of each kind of crop, as well as an equal distribution of labour throughout the season, it is necessary that each farm be divided into six equal parts, one of which is allotted to each of the above-mentioned crops. It has been objected to, on account of the frequent recurrence of fallowing; but the adhesive nature of the soil, and the circumstance of its being much infested with root-grasses, seem to render this necessary. A crop of beans, indeed, is occasionally taken in place of fallow, in which case the land is manured and ploughed as soon as possible after the last crop of the previous rotation has been removed, and the beans are drilled in the month of February or March following, at the rate of six bushels per Scots acre. The land never admitting at that early season of being formed into drills, the drill-machine merely follows the plough, depositing the seed in every alternate furrow, at the distance of from eighteen to twenty-two inches betwixt the rows. They are usually twice hand-hoed in the early part of the summer, and if the land has been sufficiently manured, and the beans got off in time to allow it to be properly prepared for the wheat, the crop is not unfrequently equal to that which has been preceded by a bare fallow. In consequence, however, of the late season at which beans ripen in this climate, they are seldom harvested in time to allow the land to be so prepared, and a bare fallow is therefore generally preferred.

" In this case, the land receives from four to six ploughings in the course of the summer, and is reduced to a fine tilth by a plentiful use of the harrows and roller. On account of the tendency of the wheat crop to lodge, manure is rarely employed in its culture. Lime is, however, occasi6nally applied, at the rate of ten to fifteen cart loads of shells per acre, although it is not so, largely used, as, from its beneficial effects on the soil, might have been expected.

The seed is universally sown broadcast, and the season generally preferred is from the beginning to the middle of October. The quantity of seed varies from two to three bushels per acre. The varieties in greatest esteem are Hunter's, and white and yellow Essex, although numerous others are in use. As early as possible after the wheat crop has been harvested, the manure which has been collected during summer is applied to the stubble land, for the following crop of beans, and the process is continued during frosty weather until the whole has been gone over. The quantity laid on varies probably from twenty-four to forty cart-loads per acre, and the expanse, exclusive of the carriage, from L. 6 to L.10. If intended to be sown in drills, the same method is pursued which we described above in the ease of their being substituted for fallow as a preparation for wheat; but by far the greater breadth of them is sown broadcast In the latter case, the ground is not ploughed till the month of February, and the crop is sown if possible about the beginning of March, at the rate of six bushels of beans, with one to two pecks of fitches per acre. The seed is then harrowed in, and the land rolled down, to preserve the moisture, as soon as it is sufficiently dry to permit of it. The land is again ploughed, shortly after the bean crop has been got off, and allowed to lay in the winter furrow, till the month of March or April following, when it receives two more ploughings, with a vigorous application of harrows and roller, to prepare it for the reception of the barley and grasses which are sown at the same time for the succeeding year's crop of hay. From three to four bushels is the ordinary allowance of seed for the former, and from half to a bushel of ryegrass seed, with about eight pounds of red clover per acre for the latter. The common two-rowed barley, or, as it is sometimes termed, English barley, from its having been first introduced from England, has long ago superseded Scotch bear or bigg, and is the only variety now in use. The land is again ploughed in the winter succeeding the removal of the hay crop, for the last crop of the rotation, viz., oats,- which are sown at the rate of six bushels per acre about the end of March. The varieties sown are numerous, but that most in favour, and which, from the abundance of its produce, and early season at which it ripens, seems best deserving of it, is the Friesland oat, so called from having been originally introduced into this country from that province. The same course is again commenced by fallowing, the above being the only crops grown to any extent in the parish.

"It is difficult to ascertain with precision the average amount of produce throughout a district; but it may be stated generally that forty bushels of wheat; forty-eight of barley; thirty-six of beans; sixty of oats; and two tons of first crop, with one ton of second crop hay per Scots acre, are considered as a fair return. Much more is occasionally reaped, but the above quantities will certainly exceed rather than fall below the average.

"Grain rents, now so generally in use, are universal throughout the district. The principle, however, is not carried out A. its full extent, wheat being the only article of produce by which the value of the rents is estimated; in other words, the farms are universally let for a certain number of bushels of wheat per acre. Ten is by much the most usual number, although a few of the farms are held at nine bushels per acre. The value of the wheat is, of course, determined by the fiars' prices of the county, and varies, frequently to a very considerable extent, yearly. In order, in some measure, to regulate this -- to prevent the rents from rising too high in scarce years, and falling too low after plentiful harvests, it is becoming usual to fix a maximum and minimum price at which the wheat shall be convertible into money, when the fiars' prices exceed or fall below them. Of late L.3, 16s. has in several instances been agreed on as the maximum, and L2, 10s. per quarter as the minimum price, preventing a ten bushel rent from falling below L.3, 2s. 6d., or rising above L.4, 7s 6d. per acre. But as the average of the county fiars for the last seven years, does not quite reach L.2, 10s. per quarter, the former of these sums may be taken as the average rent of the parish."

Agricultural Society. -- The Agricultural Association of the Eastern District of Stirlingshire was formed here two years ago. The Earl of Dunmore is patron, and Mr Forbes, president. Its object is to promote scientific and practical improvements in agriculture. Two cattle shows are held annually in the immediate neighbourhood of the town, at which premiums are awarded.

Horticultural Society. -- There is also a Horticultural Society in Falkirk, under respectable patronage. The members have four exhibitions of fruits and flowers in the course of the summer season.

Manufacturers. -- The Falkirk Iron Works are situated half a mile from the town, on the south of the Forth and Clyde Canal, and connected therewith by a basin. They employ about 500 men and boys in the manufacture of every description of small castings and cast-iron articles; such as pans, pots, kettles, stoves, grates, &c. for home and export sale. Most of the workmen are employed in moulding these articles, and are paid according to the quantity of work they perform. The industrious and sober can earn wages sufficient to enable them to live comfortably without overworking themselves. Others are employed in making patterns for the moulders, in dressing the articles when moulded, in fitting their various parts together, and finishing them for sale. They are not generally so well paid as the moulders. No branch of these employments is considered more detrimental to health than other trades, and no disease is peculiar to them. The most common complaints are, fever, a disease called blackspit, and other epidemical disorders; but to these they are subject only in common with other workmen in the neighbourhood. Many of them attain an advanced period of life. *

Nail Manufactories.-- Of these there are two in the village of Camelon, being the chief branch of trade carried on there. It was introduced about fifty years ago by Mr Cadell of Carronpark, who brought persons from England versant in the business, and who, by teaching others, have handed it down until the present time. About 250 men and boys are employed. The men get out nail-rods from the master, and return the produce in nails. The shops and all working tools and utensils are furnished by the employers, who also provide dwelling-houses for the married men and their families. The men work from five to five and a-half days in the week, each day consisting of ten hours. The remuneration to nailers is as follows:- A man by himself gains from 9s. to 14s. per week; a man and boy under him, 14s. to 16s.; a man with two boys, L.1 to L.1, 2s. ; a man with three boys, L.l, 8s. to L.l, l0s. They, however, find themselves in coals, which may cost each man 6d. per week or thereby. The employment is by no means unhealthy, and the workmen are less subject to disease than those employed in cotton or similar factories. The morals of the nailers have been improved within the , last few years. In particular, drunkenness and habits of improvidence are greatly on the decrease. In 1833, the cholera cut off so many of this class of people, that Mr Fairbairn found it necessary to advance L.40 for the purpose of interments, which has been repaid from the earnings of survivors, and a fund to the same amount accumulated to answer future emergencies. †

Collieries.--In the parish, there are three of these in operation, all to the south of the town of Falkirk. At one of them, the mining operations and the making of charcoal are carried on to such an Extent, as to employ 170 persons, who are paid according to the quantity of work they perform. They earn on an average L. 1, 5s. Per week each.

* Communication from G. Hardie, Esq.

Communication from G. Fairbairn, Esq.

Quarries. --There are seven freestone quarries working at present on a line near the middle of the parish, as far as Castlecary, for furnishing stones for the railroad and viaducts connected there. In these quarries about 160 men are employed. There is also a whinstone quarry opened, for furnishing blocks for the railway, in which thirty men are employed; The weekly wages are from 15s. to L1, 1s.

Brick and Tile Works. - There are three of these in the parish. The largest is at Lock No.3, on the south bank of the Forth and Clyde Canal. It belongs to the Earl of Zetland, who carries on the work under the direction of a manager, and employs about a dozen of men. The average weekly wages are 16s. A steam engine of six horse power, for grinding clay, was lately erected here, being an improvement in the process of brick-making. The other two brick and tile works are about a mile west from the above, and also adjoin the canal. The one employs fourteen men, and the other ten. Average wages, 14s. per week.

Saw-Mills. -- Of these there are three. One at Castlecary employs sixteen men, another at Bonnyside, fourteen. The weekly wages are from 14s. to 18s. The saws used in both are circular, driven by water, and cut up wood for staves, packing-boxes, lath, roofing and joisting. Formerly they were corn-mills. The other is upon a large scale, and is situated on he north bank of the canal, betwixt Bainsford and Grangemouth. It is constructed on the principle of Macdowall's patent, and is wrought by three steam engines of eighteen, twenty, and forty horses power. The saws used are both upright and circular, and cut for general purposes wood of any length or diameter. About fifteen men and boys are generally employed at from 6s. to L. 1, 5s. of weekly wages.

Wood Yards.-- There are four wood-yards in the parish. Taken together, ten pairs of sawyers are employed, who use the frame-saw for cutting up the wood. They are paid by the foot.

Pyroligneous Acid Works. -- In Grahamston, there are two establishments for distilling wood. In one of them, the distillation is used in making iron-liquor for printfields, and in the other for making vinegar.

Corn Mills. -- Of these there are six, four of which are driven by water. The other two go by steam-engines of twenty and thirty six horse power.

Distilleries.-- Of these there are two. One of them at Bonnymuir pays L.150 per week to Government, and employs twelve men. The other at Camelon employs five men.

Breweries.-- There are four in the parish. Three of them are comparatively upon a small scale. The other makes ales and porter of various degrees of strength. It has a great home consumpt, besides sending large quantities to London and elsewhere. It is situated in the town of Falkirk, and employs twenty men.

Tan-works.-- There are four tan-works, which are all situated in the vicinity of the town. Currying, as well as tanning, is performed in three of them; and in one of these the process of tawing sheep and lamb skins is carried on. They employ, in whole, forty-two men.

Weaving. -- Muslin and coarse linen weaving are carried on here to a very small extent. In the town there are only forty persons employed in this trade. The muslin-weavers get all their work from Glasgow. The coarse linen-weavers work only at home-made cloth, that is, cloth made by families in the neighbourhood. Ten years ago, five times the present number were employed. They are decreasing every year, from the miserable wages made at the trade.

Nurseries.--There are four in the neighbourhood of the town, which occupy a considerable extent of ground, and supply a large district with forest-trees of all kinds, as also fruit-trees, ornamental shrubs, bushes, &c. They are all kept in excellent order.

Ship-Building.-- This is carried on to a small extent, near to Lock No.16. The vessels built are for the canal trade. Twelve men are employed.