GRANGEMOUTH * is situated at the junction of the Forth and Clyde Canal with the Carron, a little above the union of that river with the Forth. The town derives its name from the Grange burn, which, winding past the Grange, or home farm of the ancient and demolished Abbey of Abbotshaugh, formerly emptied itself into the Carron, close by the site of the town. Recent improvements, by giving a new direction to the course of the rivulet, have deprived the name of its original significance. A new cut of nearly a mile in extent was opened in 1838, to connect this stream with the Forth in a more easterly direction, and thus to secure its former outlet for the formation of the extensive wet-docks which are now in progress. The town was commenced in 1777 by Sir Lawrence Dundas, in the prospect that its connection with the canal would raise it into consequence as a sea-port. The streets are regular, having been built upon a plan, and the appearance of the place, from the flatness of the surrounding country, the canal, and the frequent sea-dikes, suggests the idea of a Dutch village.

The canal is the object of principal importance. When it reaches Grangemouth, it has traversed a distance of twenty-nine miles from Port Dundas The rise from Grangemouth to Lock 20, which is the summit of the navigation, is 156 feet. The rise is effected by means of locks of 20 feet in width and 74 in length, every one of which has 8 feet of fall. Its width upon the surface is about 60 feet, and at the bottom 27. Its depth is 9 feet. The canal terminates at Grangemouth in extensive wood-ponds, in a basin and harbour. It admits vessels of ninety tons burden.

* The account of Grangemouth has been furnished by Rev, Mr. Taylor

The wood-ponds are receptacles for the timber which is imported. They are two in number. The largest is bonded, and forms a square of about three acres. Norway, Prussia, and America are the countries with which this branch of trade is maintained. It forms a principal part of the traffic of the place.

The basin and harbour afford accommodation to the vessels until they pass through the canal, or discharge their cargoes. The larger class unload here, and the proportion of their goods destined for Glasgow are carried through by means of lighters, boats built expressly for navigation. There are, besides these, three private wharf, on the banks of the Carron.

The want of accommodation at the port has been long complained of Proposals and plans of enlargement were made many years ago, when the canal did not yield a fifth of its present revenue. In 1838, effective measures were adopted. The late Earl of Zetland and the Forth and Clyde Canal Committee employed Mr Macneill, civil-engineer in London, to take surveys, and to submit a report of improvements. His report has been adopted, and, since April 1838, 200 artificers and labourers have been employed in working it out. The report embraces the following particulars, 1. the changing of the direction of the Grange burn. 2. The formation of a wet dock on the south-east of the present harbour, 27 feet in depth, and of such dimensions as to contain forty sail of the largest class of steam and merchant vessels. The sea lock, to shut the dock, is proposed to be 300 feet long and 70 broad. The formation at Bristol of a lock a few feet larger, deprives this one of the boast of being the largest in the world, and leaves it only the second place. 3. The deepening of the River Carron, so as to allow canal traders drawing nine feet of water to arrive and depart at low tide. 4. An enlargement of the easter timber basin, and a junction betwixt it and the wet dock by means of a canal ten feet deep. Above twenty acres of land have been allotted for these improvements; and, by 1843, they are expected to be in such a state of forwardness as to admit vessels into the wet dock. The facilities accorded to shipping will thus be greatly increased; and as Grangemouth has every local advantage from its being the east port of Glasgow, and its close communication with the German Ocean, it will possess every accommodation to invite the resort of commerce.

The canal does not communicate immediately with the Forth, but is connected with it by the river Carron. The course of this river has undergone many changes. At one period it flowedabout half a mile east of its present course, giving name to the farm of Carron Flats, and encircling in its windings the Inches, Easter and Wester. More recently, its course was north and west of the town. Its bed in that direction may be distinctly traced. To secure a ready approach to the canal, the river was straightened by means of a cut. The alluvial matter, through which the Carron flows, has been accumulated in a long progress of years, and invites the labours of enterprise to convert it into fertile fields. It was lately contemplated to reclaim the ground on both sides of the rivcr, and surveys have been taken, extending from Bo'ness to Higgins Neuck, which hold out the stimulating prospect of 2'800 acres of the richest soil.

The distance from the quay at Grangeniouth to the outmost beacon at the month of Carron, is reckoned about a mile and a half Vessels entering the canal were formerly conducted up the Carron by pilots. About fifteen persons generally held license of pilotage from the Trinity House of Leith. The occupation of this class is now, however, superseded by the employment of small steam-boats, which tow the vessels from the water mouth, thus rendering them less dependent upon tide and wind. Two steam-boats are used for this purpose.

Grangemouth was made the seat of a custom house in 1810. It extends over the out-stations of Alloa, Stirling, and Kincardine. Its officers consist of a collector, comptroller, clerk, two landing-waiters, locker, six tide-waiters.

The following tabular views of the nature and extent of the trade, convey a more correct idea of it than any description which could be given, of the total number of ships, &C &c.

Number of Vessels which passed through the Canal during the year 1830 to 1839, inclusive :

1830 18311832 18331834 18351836 18371838 1839
To Fort Dundas 14211402 12101314 14021478 18101710 17052204
From sea to sea 184165 151182 226239 267224 244276
Intermediate 221222 211214 239285 128348 423479
Total1821 17891472 17101867 20022405 22822372 2959

1831 being a year or great commercial distress in Glasgow, may account for the great decrease in 1832.

Average of first five years 1732
Average of second five years 2404
Average of the ten years 2068

Number of Vessels and Tons of Grain which entered the Port of Grangemouth during the following years :--

Vessels1830 1831 1832 1833 1834
Ves. TonsVes. TonsVes. TonsVes. TonsVes, Tons
British594 28834389 19077403 12789489 16213428 16756
Foreign43 828349 102504 6175 7618 1187
Total637 37117438 29327407 13406494 16974436 17943

Vessels1835 1836 1837 1838 1839
Ves. TonsVes. TonsVes. TonsVes. TonsVes. Tons
British525 25394736 40564590 30256721 387281021 54402
Foreign4 4575 71322 276213 101272 7806
Total529 25851741 41277612 33018734 397401093 62208

vessels tons
Average of first five years 48122953
Average of second five years 74240422
Average of the ten years 61231686

Tons of Pig Iron brought east by the Canal from Kirkintilloch Railway during the years :-


There are regular traders on the canal from Port Dundas to the principal ports on the east coast of England and Scotland, say to London, including the Carron Company's vessels, 12; Hull, 4; Newcastle, 6; Leith, 11; Dundee, 8; Aberdeen, 5; Montrose, 2; Arbroath, 3; Alloa, 3; and to Rotterdam, 3.

Their return cargoes consist principally of, porter, flour, yeast, seeds, &c. from London; oil, iron, and paints, from Hull; colours, lead, mill-stones, and glass, Newcastle; grain, ale, &c. Leith; bagging, osnaburgh, and yarn, Dundee; worsted, woollens, and granite, Aberdeen; grain, Montrose; pavement and grain , Arbroath; ale, bottles, and aqua, Alloa; Geneva, cheese, &c. Rotterdam.

The officers of the Canal Company at Grangemouth are, a collector, overseer of works, and harbour-master.

Number of Ships, with their Tonnage and Men, including their repeated voyages, that have arrived at the Port of Grangemouth with Cargoes from Foreign Ports, in the year 1839, distinguishing each kingdom and state, and the general description of goods imported there from :-

Kingdom or State. Ships.Tons. Men.General Description of Cargoes.
Russia,12 216489 Corn, tallow, flax, hemp, mats, tar, bristles, and wood goods.
Sweden,1 755 Manganese ore, pitch, and linseed cake.
Norway,25 2873165 Wood goods.
Denmark,33 2416160 Corn
Prussia,30 5418237 Corn, flax, timber, and other wood goods.
Germany,16 98063 Corn
Holland,12 94556 Bark, cheese, madder, and Geneva.
Belgium,1 824 Bark.
Canada,7 2859116 Timber and other wood goods
New Brunswick,15 4915191 Timber and other wood goods
TOTAL152 227271086

An Account, as above, for Vessels that have sailed from Grangemouth, with their Cargoes, for the year 1839 :-

Kingdom or State. Ships.Tons. Men.General Description of Cargoes.
Russia,5 74938 }
Sweden,1 755 } Coals, glass, and bricks.
Norway,2 16611 }
Denmark,37 2660180 Pig and wrought iron
Prussia,9 157672 Coals, pig-iron, soap and woollens.
Germany,19 134989 Pig and cast iron
Holland,4 38819 Coals, beer, pig and cast iron, and cotton manufacture.
Belgium,4 27116 Pig iron, linen-yarn, and alum.
France,15 129378 }
Portugal,1 1628 } Coals pig-iron, glass and bricks.
Italy,1 1919 }
Turkey,1 24112 }
Van Dieman's Land, 1433 18Glass, woollen and cotton manufactures.
Canada,8 3088140 }Coals, bricks, cordage, woollens and,
New Brunswick,5 188680 }cottons
Brazil1 1849 Coals, beer and glass.
TOTAL152 227271086

An Account of Duties received at the Port of Grangemouth (including the Sub-Port of Alloa) for the years 1837, 1838, and 1839 :-

1837L. 30,267
1838L. 25,054
1839L. 38,238
averageL. 31,186

An Account of Registered Vessels belonging to the Port of Grangemouth (including the out-stations of Alloa, Kincardine, and Stirling) at 31st December 1839 :- Number of vessels, 179; tonnage, 25,561.

Grangemouth has been, for many years, favourably known for its shipbuilding. The general size of the vessels which are built varies from 90 to 250 tons. In 1839 the first steam-boat built in the port was launched, being a towing vessel for the port of Memel. To favour this branch of employment, an excellent graving dock was built by Lord Dundas in 1811. It is capable of taking in two vessels of 300 tons each, and has a depth of water at spring tides of fourteen feet. The manufactory of sail and rope is also carried on here, and considerable exports of these commodities made to the colonies.

The parish recently attached quoad sacra to the church of Grangemouth contains, exclusive of the ground occupied by the town and harbours, about 1035 acres Scots measure. The policy around Kerse-House comprises about 100 of these, and the remainder is divided into sixteen farms, giving an average of 58 acres to each. The aspect of the parish is that of a perfect plain, and no part of it exceeds eight feet above the level of the highest tide. With the exception of some plantations around Kerse-House, and a few trees at the farm-steadings, the district is totally destitute of wood, for the growth of which, from the unkindly nature of the subsoil, it is but indifferently adapted. The soil, to the depth of from 6 to 12 inches, is exceedingly uniform in its character, consisting of a rich and stiff alluvial clay intermixed with a very small proportion of fine white sand. Its quality, however, is considerably affected by the nature of the sub-soil, which consists, to the depth of from l½ to 3 feet, of very hard and retentive ferruginous clay or till, which, when not broken up by the spade, is very slowly pervious to water. This is succeeded at a depth, varying from 1½ to 4 feet, by a layer of a few inches of shells interspersed with sand, underneath which is a bed of blue clay or till, in which the remains of larger marine animals have occasionally been found.

The town of Grangemouth is three miles from Falkirk, of which parish it forms a part. The distance made the want of a church and burial-ground to he much felt. So far back as 1814, L 750 were subscribed for the purpose of erecting a place of worship. The proposal was ultimately dropped, from a want of support on the part of the parish incumbent, whose church politics were opposed to the erection of chapels of ease. In 1827 the attempt was renewed, but also proved unsuccessful. No stated provision was made for the spiritual instruction of the town, until 1837. in that year, the late Earl of Zetland, from a due regard for the spiritual interest of the district, erected a substantial and commodious church. The edifice is of the Norman style of architecture similar to that of Kerse House from which it is not far situated. Accommodation is afforded for 700 sitters, the front gallery being reserved by the Noble founderr for his family and dependents. No free sittings are formally set aside for the poor; but an application to the kirk-session or local factor is all that is needed to secure seats for any who are not able otherwise to procure them. Ground to the extent of a Scots acre has been allotted for burial. As no vessel is permitted to pass through the canal on Sabbath, the town generally contains a greater proportion of unemployed sailors on that day than on week days; and, if a portion of the church, as In some other sea-ports, was appropriated for then), it might be the means or preserving them from spending the day in idleness and dissipation, and or inducing them to attend upon religious ordinances, as they could thus occupy these seats with the confidence of right, and might feel an interest in seeing them filled. The average attendance of hearers is betwixt 500 and 600, and the number who joined in communion in November 1839, when the sacrament was dispensed for the first time, was 200. There is a parochial district attached to the church, extending from one mile to one mile and a half, in each direction, and containing a population of about 1,430. This distinct has been chiefly detached from the parish of Falkirk; a small portion having been taken from the parish of Polmont, which forms the eastern boundary. The incumbent holds a bond from the Earl of Zetland, guaranteeing an annual stipend of L. 80, to meet which the seat-rents and collections are applied. L.20 of the collections are, by the voluntary arrangement of the session and managers, annually distributed for the relief of the poor of the district. Here dissent has obtained a long and a firm footing. The number or Dissenters fully exceeds that of Churchmen. There are a few adherents to the Episcopalian, Reformed Presbyterian, Scotch Independents, and Baptist persuasions, but the great body of Dissenters is divided betwixt the Relief and the United Secession. Some of the present householders, who are engaged in the public works, are Roman Catholics.

The parish is amply provided with the means of education. In 1827, there was erected by the late Lady Dundas, an elegant building containing a school-room for boys, and another for girls; an ante-room, which is used as a library, and dwelling-houses to the teachers. It is of the English cottage order, and is surrounded with extensive play-ground. There are few parish schools superior to this, in point of comfort and neatness of appearance. Salaries of L. 10 and L.5 have been secured by the Noble founder to the teachers, and an yearly allowance is made for the education of poor children. The munificence of the family also enables the teachers to distribute prizes for the encouragement of merit. English reading, grammar, Latin, French, writing, arithmetic, book-keeping, geography, and practical mathematics, are the branches taught in the boy's school. The average number of pupils is seventy. The fees vary from 4s. to 6s. per quarter. English, reading, knitting and sewing are taught in the female school; the average attendance at which is 36. Fees from 3s. to 5s. Beth of these schools undergo examination by the presbytery of the bounds.

Besides those two, which are endowed, there are other three at present in the town, at which the ordinary branches of education are taught One of these is intended chiefly for females. The charges in each are from 3s. to 4s. per quarter. The average number of children who enjoy the benefit of education is 206. The general evil of early attendance and early withdrawal from school is much felt here. They enter at four and a-half years, and withdraw at ten; thus entering before they are capable of profiting, and leaving when they begin to enjoy the benefit of instruction.

There is a library in the town supported by subscription. A public reading room has also been in existence for many years. The town is lighted with gas. There are an Auxiliary Bible Society, a Temperance Society, and a Female Missionary Society, all in active operation.