Market-Town.-- Falkirk is the only market-town in the parish, and is estimated as containing nearly 5000 inhabitants; but within the bounds of the Parliamentary burgh, the population was ascertained in 1835 to be 7445. The town consists of a principal street, extending to three-quarters of a mile, from east to west, forming part of the turnpike road betwixt Edinburgh, Glasgow, and Stirling. The street is rather narrow at the extremities, but it gradually widens in approaching the centre, where it attains a respectable breadth. There are besides, other streets and lanes, some of which branch from, and others run parallel with, the principal one. Among these, the Kirk-Wynd strikes off from the main or High Street, and connecting with a range of elegant new houses in the same line, unites the town to the villages of Grahamston and Bainsford, forming a continuous double line of houses of upwards of a mile in length. Situated on an elevation, with a gentle declivity on each side, and having a small stream or burn at each end, the town is easily kept dry, and has a free circulation of air. Within the last half century, many of the houses have been rebuilt, generally in a handsome style. An elegant spire, 140 feet in height, containing a clock and a couple of bells, one of them large and full-toned, is both ornamental and useful. It was built in 1813 on the foundation of an old steeple, which had been taken down in 1803, and originally erected in 1697. The shops and the town are lighted with gas, and a good supply of water is obtained from the high grounds to the south. The bustle of business is observable to a degree rather beyond that of ordinary country town This is the case particularly on market and fair-days, and on occasion of the great cattle tryst which are held on Stenhousemuir, in the parish of Larbert, three miles to the northward From its vicinity to these markets, a large proportion of the dealers make Falkirk their head-quarters, and they thus draw to it, periodically, a considerable influx of strangers. With the exception of leather, no goods are to any great extent manufactured in the town, it being chiefly supported by an extensive inland trade, and by the iron-works, canals, and collieries in the vicinity. There is a market for butcher meat to which, for its well known excellence, resort is had from all parts of the surrounding country. The grain market is also well attended, and it has now ample accommodation; The trade of the place is assisted by a branch of the Bank of Scotland (which a few years ago came in place of the Falkirk Bank), also by branches of the Commercial Bank of Scotland, the National Bank, and the Clydesdale Banking Company.

Police &c. -- Falkirk was erected a burgh of barony by King James, VI. in A.D. 1600, by a charter in favour of Alexander Lord Livingston. In 1646, it was erected into a burgh of Regality by Charles I., and the different trades acquired certain privileges, which were united by commissions or seals of cause from the baron. The rights which these conveyed are now entirely obsolete. The office of stent-master, still retained by delegates chosen annually by each of the trades, is supposed to have originated in the powers formerly enjoyed by the burgesses.

When the feudal jurisdictions were taken away in 1745, Falkirk again became a burgh of barony, under the government of a bailie appointed by the proprietor of Callendar; but for many years past no person has held that office. For a long period, the only dispensers of law in the town, were the Justices of the Peace, who held monthly courts for the recovery of small debts, &c. and the suppression of riots. There was no jail or place of confinement for criminals, and the inconvenience and expense of sending these to Stirling, the county town, was severely felt. At length measures were taken for relieving this populous district from the hardships under which it had been labouring, and the matter having been represented to Government, a resident sheriff-substitute was appointed, who opened his court in Falkirk in July 1834. This arrangement has been of great advantage to the place, the more especially as, since then, apartments in the town steeple have been fitted up and legalised as a prison; and it is now only necessary to convey to the county jail, such criminals as may be committed for trial before the Court of Justiciary.

By the Reform Act, Falkirk is constituted a Parliamentary burgh. Its boundaries are defined; and, along with Airdrie, Hamilton, Lanark, and Linlithgow, returns a representative to Parliament. By a subsequent act, the municipal government of the burgh is vested in a provost, three bailies, a treasurer, and seven councillors; but, having been called into existence without being provided with the means of defraying the necessary expenditure, the magistrates exercise no jurisdiction, nor have they as yet interfered with the town's revenue. This is managed by the stent-masters, who, from use and wont, have exercised the power of levying an annual assessment from the inhabitants, for supplying the town with water, and other public purposes. The feuars are a separate body, who annually choose office-bearers, and who, in consideration of their surrendering about forty years ago certain privileges which they wield over the extensive moor or commonty on the south of Falkirk, in order that it might be cultivated, acquired right to some heritable property, besides the town's customs. Their funds are applied towards objects of local improvement. Hitherto this system has been held sufficient for managing the affairs of the town. The police of the district is maintained by the county at large, by whom several criminal officers are stationed in the place.

Villages. -- Beginning at the west end of the parish , the first we notice is Bonnybridge. It is situated on the Glasgow turnpike road, four miles from Falkirk, and contains about 100 inhabitants, who are employed as artisans and labourers. In the neighbour hood, there is a small burying-yard. There is a school which has a small endowment, and the teacher is appointed by the kirk-session of the parish

Camelon is on the same turnpike road, and about a mile west from Falkirk. The population in 1831 was 809, and the inhabitants are chiefly engaged in nail-making. It has two schools, one of which was built by subscription, and a Sabbath school supported by a society. A handsome church has been recently built at the west end of the village, seated for 660 persons.* The ground for the site, and a liberal donation besides, were given by Mr Forbes of Callendar, and the remainder of the expense was made tip by contributions under the Church Extension Scheme.
*This church was opened for worship on Sabbath, 23d August 184O.

Bainsford, a mile north of Falkirk, is now a suburb of that town, and forms part of the Parliamentary burgh. In 1831, it contained 791 inhabitants, a great proportion of whom are employed at the well-known Carron Iron Works, which are in the neighbourhood, but in the parish of Larbert. A basin communicating with the Forth and Clyde Canal, accommodates the Carron Company's vessels in the Liverpool trade) and a railway connects it with the works. Some of the inhabitants are also engaged at a rope-walk at this place. The village contains one school. By the canal, over which there is a drawbridge, it is disjoined on the south from Grahamston, which in 1831 contained 1288 inhabitants. It is also a suburb, and part of the burgh of Falkirk. It consists of modern stone-buildings, occupied as dwelling-houses and shops. The labouring part of the population are chiefly employed at the Carron Works, and at the Falkirk Iron Works in the neighbourhood. From its vicinity to the canal, there is a considerable traffic in timber and grain ; and vessels with dried fish from the north resort thither, which command a ready sale. There are four schools; some of them under female teachers.

Laurieston is about a mile and a-half east from Falkirk, on the Edinburgh road. In 1831, it contained 1306 inhabitants, who are employed chiefly in weaving, nail-making, and in agriculture. There are also various artisans, such as stone masons and shoe-makers. This place has been laid out on a regular plan on the sides of the highway, having a square in the centre, with lanes in the same direction on the south and north, and intersected by cross streets. It was originally called New Merchiston, having been feued out in 1756, by Francis Lord Napier. It received its present name in honour of the late Sir Lawrence Dundas, who be-came its feudal superior, and it still holds under his descendant, flow Earl of Zetland. There are three schools; also a church in connection with the Reformed Presbytery, built in 1788. The place is elevated, and commands an uncommonly beautiful view of the Carse of Falkirk, and more distant mountain scenery.

For the sake of arrangement we classify Grangemouth among the villages; but in reality, it merits the denomination of a town, being a sea-port, and the centre of a district lately erected into a quoad sacra parish.

GRANGEMOUTH see sub-section

Means of Communication.-There are several post-offices in the parish, a principal one being in Falkirk, and another in Grange mouth. Camelon, Grahamston, and Laurieston, have each its sub. office. There are two daily posts to and from Edinburgh, Glasgow, &c. and also daily posts to Stirling, Alloa, and other neighbouring towns. Letters are delivered in Falkirk twice a day, and runners are dispatched to the country parts of the parish every morning. The inhabitants enjoy great facilities for travelling. During the summer, passage boats ply on the Union Canal to Edinburgh, to which there are three different opportunities every lawful day, and an equal number of night boats on their way betwixt Edinburgh and Glasgow. In winter, however, there are only two day boats besides the night ones. To Glasgow by the Forth and Clyde Canal, boats leave Lock No.16, a mile from Falkirk, four times a day. Two coaches pass through the townevery day for Edinburgh, two for Glasgow, two for Stirling, one for Alloa, and one for Dunfermline and Kirkaldy.

Roads.-There may be about ten miles of turnpike roads in the parish; besides which, it is intersected in all directions by other public roads maintained from the Statute Labour funds.

Bridges.- The parish is connected with Larbert by two bridges over the Carron; with Denny by one over the water of Bonny; with Polmont by several bridges, and with Bothkennar by a drawbridge over the Carron, of thirty feet wide, to allow vessels to pass on the river. There are also bridges over different streamlets, and all are generally in good condition. The line of the Forth and Clyde Canal, in passing through the parish, is crossed by five drawbridges. Several highways are carried over the Union Canal by arches of stone.

Fences.-These in the upland parts consist chiefly of thorn hedges and stone dikes. In some of the subdivision hedges, oak, elm, and beech trees have been planted. This occurs particularly on the grounds of Mr Forbes of Callendar. In the Carse, ditches prevail in a great degree, which serve not only for the division of fields, but also for the draining off the superabundant moisture. Here also, there are hedgerows of thorn; and the willow tree abounds, attaining a considerable size.

Canals - The Forth and Clyde Canal was begun in 1768,-opened to a certain extent in 1775, and completed in 1790. It commences at Grangemouth, and, passing westward through the whole length of the parish, leaves it half a mile to the west of Castlecary drawbridge, where it enters the parish of Cumbernauld. For the first three miles, it runs through a dead level of carse ground, but the rise then becomes so rapid as to require an elevation of twelve locks within the space of little more than a mile. The turnpike road formerly passed under the Canal, about a mile west from Falkirk, but, by a recent alteration of that road, the Canal is now crossed by a drawbridge.

The Union Canal, begun in 1818 and finished in 1822, runs through this parish to its termination at Lock 16 of the Forth and Clyde Canal, a distance of three miles. Here it falls 110 feet by means of eleven locks, within the compass of half-a-mile. At the same distance south from Falkirk, it passes through a tunnel cut out of the solid rock, nearly 1000 yards in length. This canal is used for the conveyance of passengers and of goods, coal, manure, &c.

Railway.-The line of the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway passes through this parish for about eight miles, entering from Polmont on the cast. It is to have a branch to the town of Falkirk, which is within half-a-mile of the main line. The operations commenced in this neighbourhood early in 1839, and within the parish they consist of works of considerable magnitude. Among these, may be mentioned a bridge consisting of several arches, of great height, going at once over the burn at Castlecary and over the turnpike road there, and a viaduct of three arches, one of which, being 130 feet span, crosses the Union Canal near to its western termination. A tunnel also is, at present, in the course of formation, which, when finished, will extend to 845 yards under ground, will be 26 feet in width, 22 feet in height, and arched with brick. It is expected that this great undertaking, understood to cost a million of money, will be finished in 1842.

Ecclesiastical State.-The parish church is advantageously siituated for the inhabitants of the town, and none of the villages, with the exception of Bonnybridge and Grangemouth, (which last, as already stated, has been erected into a parish quoad sacra) are more than a mile and a half distant. In some of the country parts of the parish, the population may be still five miles from the church. But for upwards of a century past, considerable parts of it have been annexed quoad sacra to the neighbouring parishes of Slamanan and Cumbernauld.

Ancient documents show that, at one time, Denny, Slamanan, Muiravonside, and Polmont, formed parts of the then existing parsonage of Falkirk. Of the period when the three first of these parishes were disjoined, no record has been found; but Polmont was created a distinct parish in 1724.

The church of Falkirk was founded by Malcolm Canmore in A.D.1057. It was rebuilt in 1810. The ancient fabric consisted of four lofty arches, with extended aisles in the form of a cross, the centre forming the area or body of the church, and surmounted by a steeple. The present church contains sittings for 1500 hearers. It is a square building, with windows of a Gothic form, and a circular gallery. The internal arrangements are convenient. The old arches and steeple were allowed to remain, and the former area now serves as a porch for the present church. The greater part of the pews were apportioned amongst the heritors; and one of them was set apart as free sittings for twelve poor persons.

Benefaction. - Some years ago, the sum of L.500 was bequeathed to the kirk-session for behoof of the poor, by the late William Simpson, Esq. younger of Plean. The interest only of this sum is distributed, in terms of the will of the donor.

The manse was rebuilt in 1746, and since then it has undergone many alterations and repairs, particularly in 1835, when it received a considerable addition. The house and offices are now in good order, and contain ample accommodation for a family. Adjoining is an excellent garden. Being in the town and near to the church, the manse is convenient for the incumbent and the parishioners.

The glebe is somewhat less than the legal quantity of four acres, but the difference is made up by a portion of adjacent ground, which is rented by the heritors and possessed by the minister. The stipend being payable in grain, varies in its amount, and may be estimated on an average at L.400.

There are no Chapels of Ease, but there are two additional churches, one at Grangemouth and another at Camelon, whereof notice has been already taken. There is also a church in the town, formerly of the Old Light Associate Synod, now connected with the Establishment, to which no parochial district has been as yet assigned. There is no Episcopal chapel. At present, while the railway is forming in the neighbourhood, a meeting of Papists is held monthly in the town, where service is conducted by a priest from Stirling. The audience is chiefly composed of Irish labourers. There are several Dissenting chapels, one of which has already been noticed under the head of Laurieston. In the town, there are two of the United Secession Synod; one of the Relief, and one of the Baptist persuasion. Of the three former, the ministers are paid from the seat-rents, and their stipends may be estimated at from L.I00 to L.200, including the value of their manses. Of the latter, the services are conducted by laymen, and the sittings are free. The Congregational church, a few years ago, became extinct, and their place of meeting is now occupied by the Baptists.

The average number of communicants at the Established Church, twice in the year, is from 600 to 700.

Divine service there, and also at the Dissenting chapels, is, in general, well attended, which can scarcely fail to be the case in such a numerous population It is to be lamented, that some in the more respectable walks of life give only a partial attendance, while multitudes in the lowest ranks of society are altogether careless about the matter

There is at present no general Society for religious purposes. The Established and the Dissenting churches, however, contribute liberally for these objects, in connection with their own congregations, or with the ecclesiastical bodies to which they respectively belong.

Education.-There are 25 schools in the parish, exclusive of Grangemouth. They are attended by about 1200 children. Two of these schools are parochial. In the one are taught Latin, Greek, and French. The salary is L. l 7, with a dwelling- house and garden; the school fees 7s. 6d. and l0s. 6d. per quarter. In the other, are taught English, at 3s. 6d. per quarter; writing and arithmetic, at 4s; botany, geography, and animal physiology, at 5s. 6d. Salary, L.34. In this department, there is great want of school accommodation; the room being only eighteen feet square for 110 scholars. Some of the other schools have small endowments. At Bonnybridge, the teacher has L.4 per annum, arising from L. 100 left by a Mr Scott for that purpose about sixty years ago. He has also a school, dwelling-house, and garden rent free. At Craigburn the teacher has L.10 annually from Mr Forbes, besides a school and dwelling-house, rent free. At Laurieston, the teacher has a school and dwelling-house, besides L5 5s. of yearly salary from the Earl of Zetland. For the common branches of education, the fees are from 2s. 6d. to 4s. per quarter. Where the higher branches, such as geography, navigation, land-surveying, and mensuration are taught, the fees are 7s. 6d. and l0s. 6d. per quarter. One of the schools in Falkirk is for poor children exclusively, being usually attended by eighty, who are educated gratis. On Sabbath evenings, the children assemble for religious instruction. The teacher receives a salary of L.40 per annum, which is made up of an annual evening collection at the parish church; on which occasion, service is conducted by a Churchman and a Dissenter alternately, and any deficiency is supplied by private donations. It has existed since the year 1812, and has been of great benefit to the place. The people, in general, appear to be alive to the advantages of education; and there are no parts of the parish so distant as to prevent attendance at one or other of the schools.

Literature. -- There are in the town of Falkirk several public libraries The principal one, instituted in 1792, contains about 8000 volumes; a circulating library, 1200 volumes; and a Relief church library, 1000 volumes. A School of Arts commenced in 1827, in which there are weekly lectures during the winter season. In 1839-40, lectures on Natural History were delivered. It has a library of about 600 volumes. There are two public reading-rooms for newspapers. There is at present no periodical work published here, although there are two printing establishments.

Charitable Institution.-The only one is an hospital for the maintenance of four aged persons. It was founded and endowed in 1640, by Lord Livingstone of Almond and Callendar. There belongs to it an acre of ground near the town, which is let for gardens, &c. Each of the inmates receives from the proprietor of Callendar ten firlots of oatmeal annually, besides a small sum in money. He has the right of filling up vacancies as they occur.

There are several private associations for the support of the sick, the infirm, and the aged. There was a savings' bank some years ago, but it does not now exist.

Poor and Parochial Funds.-In 1833, the poor's roll contained 160 persons. At present (1840), they amount to 250. All these receive regular supply, according to their circumstances of destitution, from 1s. 6d. to 16s. per month. Another class receive 3s. and 4s. per week. Besides these, sums to a large annual amount are bestowed in occasional relief. In the winter season, shoes and clothing are given in addition to pecuniary donations. In the course of the year ending June 1839, L.693, 14s. 3d. were expended in these different ways. The funds requisite for these supplies arise from the interest of L.600 lent out by the kirk-session about fifty years ago, dues of proclamations, mortcloth, collections at the door of the parish church, but chiefly from an assessment imposed annually by a meeting of the heritors and kirk-session in terms of law. This assessment for many years consisted of L.I Sterling on every L.100 Scots of valued rent in the parish, and, along with a voluntary contribution from the inhabitants of the town and villages, amounted to L.200. This, in addition to the other funds, formed an adequate source of supply for the poor and incidental expenses. Of late years, however, the assessment has been rapidly increasing. In I 1834-35, it was L.400; 1835-6, L.650; 1836-37, L.550; and, in l837-38, L.950. The average collection at the church door for five years preceding June 1839, is about L.65. These contributions are decreasing to a great extent, in consequence of the enlarged assessments. A committee of heritors meets with the kirk-session monthly, for receiving applications for aid and from the numbers who then apply, the reception of parochial relief does not appear to them to be degrading. A great defect prevails as to the proper management of the poor. There is no superintendence of them, nor due investigation made as to their circumstances; and, for a few years back, almost every person applying has received assistance. From this cause, and from the idle and improvident habits of many of the lower classes, pauperism is much on the increase.

Prison.-To this we have already adverted. The number of prisoners during last year was about 80, who were in general immured for petty offences. The prison is strictly a place of confinement, having no airing-ground. Its government is vested in the Sheriff, and under him one of his officers acts as jailer, and supplies the prisoners with food, &

Fairs.-Exclusive of the Falkirk trysts, which, as already stated, are held in a neighbouring parish, there are nine annual fairs in the town of Falkirk. Of these, seven are for buying and selling horses and cattle, and two for hiring servants. The markets and fairs are held uniformly on Thursdays.

Inns, Alehouses, &c.-Within the parish, there are 6 inns and 110 other houses of public entertainment. So many houses of this description can scarcely be considered as favourable to the morals of the people.

Fuel.- This consists of coal, which is procured within the parish. An ordinary cart load of 15 cwt., delivered in the town, costs, carriage included, 7s. 1d.